Interview with Michel Chevalier

Today’s interview is with someone a few of you might be familiar with – the fantastic Michel Chevalier. Michel has a fascinating background – with stints at the Boston Consulting Group, Paco Rabanne, and Bluebell Asia Group (which manages brands like Moschino, Blumarine, and Carven internationally), he is a well known figure in the luxury goods industry. Michel has authored several of the key texts used by students of luxury management today, and has taught and continues to teach at INSEAD, ISML and HEC in Paris. Enjoy meeting Michel!

Who are you? What do you do, and where do you live?

My name is Michel Chevalier and I have been lucky enough to live in France, in Germany, in Spain, in the USA, in Latin America, in Japan, in Hong Kong and in China. I did not plan it that way but I had for example, the opportunity to go and study in the United States and I just took it.

I am now a consultant with EIM in Paris, an activity which is actually almost unrelated to the luxury field, but I also appear as speaker, keynote speaker or teacher in many part of the world and I write and publish books on luxury (Luxury Brand Management, Luxury Retail Management and Luxury China…and I am working on a new one), just for fun and because it is interesting.

You have had a very accomplished and diverse career in the luxury industry. Can you share how your career began and evolved?

I came to the luxury sector without realizing it. I was General Manager of Johnson Wax Venezuela in Caracas, and I wanted to come back to Paris. I was offered a job of General Manager of Paco Rabanne Parfums and I did not know there was a difference between creating and selling a fast moving consumer good (FMCG) and a perfume. I had to learn the hard way.

There basically are two differences:

1. For a FMCG, you can test so much that you are almost sure it will be a success : the risk of failure is much higher in the luxury field.

2. In a FMCG company, you sell your product in one country, or you have subsidiaries in many countries. These products test locally and sometimes come with different products (or at least different positioning) before they launch in different countries. In luxury you must launch the same product from one single country (France or Italy or the USA). Then, the same product must be found everywhere in the world, very often without using subsidiaries but distributors or retailers (who use their money to develop your brand).

Having worked all around the world, you must have witnessed some major shifts in the luxury market over the past decade. What have been some of the largest changes you’ve seen?

Major changes that have come in the last 10 years:

1. There has been a move away from wholesale activities and into directly operated retail stores (except for perfumes and wine and spirits)…for many reasons, but one of these reasons is that department stores grow much less than luxury brands.

2. A stronger marketing analysis and focus, at least a more sophisticated strategic thinking.

3. The luxury business is now completely worldwide, with a strong emphasis on Asia (50% of the volume for many brands) and there is now a need to organize local creative analysis, marketing studies and to set up wholesale and retail coordination in different parts of the world.

Moschino Hong Kong, via Moschino

Moschino Hong Kong, via Moschino

You lived in Hong Kong and Japan as part of your work with Bluebell Asia Group, managing brands like Blumarine, Moschino, Carven and more. Can you share a bit about your experience and why you chose to join Bluebell? 

Why did I work for Bluebell? Just by chance: the Bluebell distributor was one of my first clients when I was at Paco Rabanne, so I knew the owner quite well and one day he offered me to become EVP of the company. I then had to learn the retailing part and it gave me a good understanding of how should a brand be promoted and what the logical attitudes were of the distributors and the retailers.

I also understood better what was going to happen in Asia, for the luxury sector, and also in general. I believe Bluebell had 160 stores, plus a one to three salesforce for wholesale activities spread out among ten Asian countries. It was a strong challenge and a very interesting time in my life.

Michel at an ESSEC Luxe event, via

Michel at an ESSEC Luxe event, via

As luxury brands continue to produce higher quantities to meet  demand, there has been criticism that production in houses such as Prada, Gucci, etc have been outsourced – and quality has suffered as a result. Is this what you have observed?

You ask me what I think about the theory that brands are dropping in quality, because they continue to come up with cheaper entry products produced by cheaper sub-contractors. I know this is the theory of Dana Thomas. I love her book, it is well documented, easy to read and very good.

But the underlining story is wrong. I believe the contrary, that products sold today are of much better quality than they were 30 years ago. I remember in the late seventies you could find Dior and Saint Laurent polyester shirts all over Latin-America, and Dior plastic ties in Australia. I remember top brand plastic shoes in Brazil and many other horrible products in Russia. They have all disappeared. The new model has been to cancel the famous “entry pieces” and to concentrate on top quality products. When a strong French brand realizes that too many women are carrying their handbags, the first thing they do, is double the retail price to make the bag less accessible and reserved only for the most sophisticated ladies.

One thing is certain: today luxury products are all in all a much better quality than they were 30 years ago, and the luxury business does not develop through cheap entry prices. Actually, the average ticket of luxury retail stores has grown faster than inflation.

Where has much of the growth in the luxury industry come from? 

The key explanation for the growth of the luxury industry is the development of a new middle class, with yearly salaries ranging from $25,000 to $60,000 in different parts of the world . The members of this group start by buying a bottle of champagne or a Chanel lipstick of a Cartier watch for the first time in their life. This basic fact is well documented and has been explained by the theory of the “excursionist”: the man or the woman who buys a luxury product (and sometimes an expensive one) less than once every two years. This group represents a very large part of the business.

Now, what is difficult and fascinating in this industry, is that you have to find this new middle class. They are not in Western Europe or in North America.

La Maison du Chocolat in New York, via

La Maison du Chocolat in New York, via

What are some luxury brands that you view as doing a fantastic job with anticipating and meeting global trends and demands?

Luxury brands that impress me are those that were relatively weak ten years ago and that have already reached the one billion euros sales level or will soon reach it: Van Cleef & Arpels, Fendi and Bottega Veneta. I am also impressed by Jimmy Choo and La Maison du Chocolat. Brands that really do not impress me or did not impress me are Christian Lacroix or Etienne Aigner. Actually, there are many other brands that do not impress me at all, but I don’t want to mention them…

I am also impressed by the managers who have landed as head of a brand with no growth at all for a period of five to ten years and who, slowly and quietly, make them grow again. If you look carefully at what goes on in the industry, you can identify several of these very quiet and very effective managers.

Louis Vuitton in Hanoi, via Paula Bronstein/Getty Images

Louis Vuitton in Hanoi, via Paula Bronstein/Getty Images

What trends should managers of luxury brands be thinking about as they look towards the next decade?

1. I would say that brands must be 100% international, but also still think about the customer in Chile or in Vietnam – he or she is also buying a French, an Italian or a Spanish product. So, the international approach must be quite sophisticated, but the philosophy of the brand must remain very local and the national values have to be maintained. It seems obvious, but it not so much the case in large international groups: I could even give you good examples of that…

2. Also managers should be careful: yes, the direct retail activities are important, but the visibility can only be obtained in small, selective, independent multi-brand stores. The Louis Vuitton model of 100% retail is great for that brand. It does not work for medium size brands.

3. Customers are interested in luxury because there are many brands and because it is fun and different. The day when only 10 or 15 major brands take 95% of the volume, then the business becomes boring and customers become less interested. This  happened in Japan between 1995 and 2005. I hope it does not happen elsewhere in the future.

Michel's newest book, Luxury in China

Michel’s newest book, Luxury in China

What would be your advice for somebody looking to start working in the luxury industry? Where can they start?

Wait a few months. I am in the process of creating an MBA in Global Luxury Brand Management in Paris, and I believe this is really the place to go.

Any final words of advice?

Luxury is probably the most creative, most international and most fascinating activities out there…but I entered there by chance, and today there are more candidates than jobs available. And this is a very demanding industry, in terms of travel and hours. But if you are well prepared, you can do very well and have a fascinating career.


I really enjoyed hearing Michel’s thoughts on the luxury goods industry, as well as his story as to how he entered it in the first place. It’s fascinating to hear his opinions alongside those of other industry observers like Dana Thomas and Michael Silverstein, and see where they meet and diverge. I also want to thank Michel for taking the time to do this interview – he is as you might be able to tell, very busy and he actually did this interview while abroad in Asia. For more of Michel, feel free to check out his books, and see his teachings in Paris!

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  • Reply
    July 18, 2013 at 8:23 am

    What a fascinating man. My daughter went to HEC and still returns to go to seminars, I will be sending this to her.

    • Reply
      July 18, 2013 at 9:46 am

      What an awesome opportunity! Maybe she may have already sat in his courses 🙂

  • Reply
    July 18, 2013 at 11:56 am

    Thank you once again for an amazing interview. This definitely brings back memories of when I worked at NM. Every morning before the store opened, we would have meetings with reps/designer from vendors that showcase beautiful pieces and teach us about the craftsmanship and most importantly, the story behind each brand and item. Thanks for the great insights on the behind-the-scenes of what goes on to run the luxury market!

    • Reply
      July 18, 2013 at 12:59 pm

      Thanks for sharing your experience at NM Kat! Did you work in a particular department? I’m jealous of the discount! 🙂

  • Reply
    July 18, 2013 at 6:02 pm

    Interesting read. Thanks for sharing!

  • Reply
    July 18, 2013 at 6:58 pm

    awesome interview! i wish he would have dished more though – would have loved to hear which luxury brands didn’t impress him and why.

    la maison du chocolat is yummy but they discontinued my favorite flavor!

    • Reply
      July 23, 2013 at 10:11 pm

      I would love to hear this too, I am guessing Michel wanted to stay polite…though I’m sure if you asked him in person, he would dish!

  • Reply
    July 18, 2013 at 8:06 pm

    I agree with TC, wish he would have said more brands that didn’t impress him and why.
    Thank you for such an interesting blog post interview!

    A Golden State of Mind

  • Reply
    July 19, 2013 at 5:05 am

    Another fantastic interview Katherine!! Beeing already 20 years in the luxury retail business ( the latest was BULGARI, but now as new mommy I work for my baby ;-)) it’s always interesting to read peoples opinions about past, present & future of the luxury market !!

    Warm greetings,

  • Reply
    July 19, 2013 at 8:07 am

    This is a sidebar conversation I suppose. However, I need your feedback. I have been downsizing my life especially in regards to handbags. What is the normal amount of handbags to have?

    What handbags are considered classic? For example…. I own 2 LV epi speedys one in black/ red
    The LV monogram speedy in “25” and “40”, LV Damier Neverfull, LV Damier Nolita; LV Monogram Cabas; LV epi Madeline Tote (Large); LV Empriente Inspiree and Luminese; Gucci Tote (2) Brown Monogram; LV red patent tote; 3 Bottega Veneta 1 Black Maxi, 1 Large Fire Red Belly; and 1 Medium Veneta, 1 Fendi Doctor bag (red) 1 Fendi Messenger Bag; LV Taigna Leather Messenger; the list goes on. Help!

    • Reply
      July 20, 2013 at 12:28 pm

      Wow that is a big cleanout! I think that it depends on your lifestyle and what size/type of bag you find the most helpful. For me personally looking at your list I might get rid of one of the speedys, decide if you need all of the LV totes or if you can trim it down to just one, maybe look at if you can get rid of a Gucci tote. I am a big fan of BV but if you have both a maxi and veneta – are they both black? Can you get rid of one?

      What are your favorite bags…and what makes them your favorite?

  • Reply
    Luxury Retail Management: How the World’s Top Brands Provide Quality Product and Service Support Reviews | WWW.DBESTREVIEW.COM
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    Marlene @ chocolatecookiesandcandies
    July 21, 2013 at 5:55 am

    This has been such a fascinating read. It’s a rare opportunity for those of us to be able to glean an insight into the world of luxury from an insider. I’m still on the fence on his comment about the quality of luxury goods becoming better. I’ve seen Louis Vuitton, Chanel and other brands such as Prada and Gucci and their quality isn’t getting any better. I have a friend who used to work for Prada and would never ever buy a Prada bag again in her lifetime for the same reason. If you take the bags apart, you’ll often see that it’s glued with residue on the end, sometimes the edges are uneven etc etc.

    • Reply
      July 22, 2013 at 10:28 am

      Wow thank you for sharing your friends’ experience at Prada! I remember Prada being one of the brands highlighted in various articles about a decrease in quality – I haven’t purchased a Prada bag in some time so haven’t witnessed the decline myself. The note about the edges being uneven, etc is shocking!

      • Reply
        July 24, 2013 at 12:12 am

        It’s interesting what you said about Prada.. I just happened to check out the Saffiano Lux in store yesterday and it was by far one of the better made Prada bags I’ve seen (and touched) in a while. I know some of their older nylon bags felt like they were made with questionable quality, but I think the luxury industry as the whole is beginning to realize that the trend is gearing back towards well-made products instead of factory-churned pieces. And they are slowly, but surely, moving back towards that.

  • Reply
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